100G CFP Transceiver – Ultra High Speed Transmission Solution

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During the past few years, 40G technology has dominated telecommunications. But now, with the introduction of the 100G technology, everyone is talking about 100 Gbps as the next generation. Whether willing or not, IT managers and data center designers have to consider migrate their network to 100 Gbps in the near future. And CFP is designed to fulfil the deployment of 100G network for companies and enterprises.

Brief Introduction to 100G CFP Optics
CFP transceiver was designed after SFP transceiver interface, but it supports much larger internet speed, which is realized by using 10×10Gbit/s in each direction (RX, TX). Here the C stands for 100 in Roman numerals (centum). We can infer from the name that CFP is introduced to serve as optical transceiver for 100G interfaces. Since the electrical connection of the CFP uses 10×10Gbit/s lanes in every direction, the optical connection can support both 10×10Gbit/s and 4×25Gbit/s variants of 100Gbit/s interconnects (typically known as 100GBASE-LR10 and 100GBASE-LR4 in 10km SMF reach, and 100GBASE-ER10 and 100GBASE-ER4 in 40km SMF reach, and 100GBASE-SR10 in 100 meter MMF reach respectively.)

100G CFP optics

Different Types of 100G CFP
There are several CFP types to be introduced—CFP, CFP2 and CFP4. CFP2 and CFP4 are the upgraded generation of CFP. Among them, the size of CFP is the largest. CFP2 is half the size of CFP while CFP4 is the half size of CFP2. And the features of the three different types have been summarized in the following texts. One thing that needs to be noted is that although they are not interchangeable, but could be interoperable at the optical interface with appropriate connectors.

100G CFP

Features and Benefits of CFP:

  • Supports 40G and 100G Ethernet CFP optical transceivers
  • Capable of side by side mounting as well as “belly to belly” mounting
  • Provides full EMI shielding
  • Uses a universal rail for both left and right positions
  • Allows integration of host PCB to host bezel (face plate) by either of two methods for manufacturing flexibility.

Features and Benefits of CFP2 and CFP4:

  • Up to 28 Gbps per lane – 2.8 times faster than current CFP products
  • High density, 0.6mm contact pitch
  • Provides one of the industry’s leading Signal Integrity (SI) performance for 28 Gbps per lane
  • Features a ruggedized cage construction for a more robust solution to help mitigate cage warping
  • Flexible design options to address your needs including ganged cages, heat sinks, single-sided and belly-to-belly mounting styles, light-pipes, and the capability to support mid- to long-reach applications

FS 100G CFP Solution
As one of the leading providers in optical communication , FS provides customers with transceivers that are manufactured at the highest quality of standards in the industry. All the CFP transceivers mentioned above, including both CFP2 and CFP4, are available in our website. And every transceiver is individually tested on corresponding equipment such as Cisco, Arista, Juniper, Dell, Brocade and other brands, and passed the monitoring of our intelligent quality control system. Also, all the products in FS are fully warranted against defects in material and workmanship with a lifetime guarantee.

Conclusion
2017 has witnessed the prosperity of the telecommunication market. Many research company predicts that the market of 2018 for telecommunication field will continue to thrive. With such a bright future, fiber optics market attracts a wide attention and many vendors want a piece of the pie. At present, 40G is ubiquitous in the data center and 100G is accelerating. As for the optical transceiver, it has been developed in the past decades to adapt to the high-speed requirement from 1G to 40G even to 100G. Believe it or not, 100G is on the way. Don’t wait to get fully prepared for the upcoming 100G era with CFP transceivers.

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Introduction to Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA)

Optical amplifier, with the introduction in 1990s, conquered the regenerator technology and opened doors to the WDM technology. It is mainly used to amplify an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal. There are many types of optical amplifiers, namely Raman amplifiers, erbium doped-fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). This article will make a clearer introduction to SOA amplifier, and analyze its advantages and disadvantages.

transport network system

The Basics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA)

SOA optical amplifiers use the semiconductor as the gain medium, which are designed to be used in general applications to increase optical launch power to compensate for loss of other optical devices. Semiconductor optical amplifiers are often adopted in telecommunication systems in the form of fiber-pigtailed components, operating at signal wavelengths between 0.85 µm and 1.6 µm and generating gains of up to 30 dB. Semiconductor optical amplifier, available in 1310nm, 1400nm, 1500nm, 1600nm wavelength, can be used with singlemode or polarization maintaining fiber input/output.

Key Points of SOA Amplifier

  • 1310 nm, 1400 nm, 1550 nm and 1610 nm wavelength selectable
  • High fiber-to-fiber gain of 20 dB
  • Up to 16 dBm output
  • 1 MHz with 10 ns pulse width (optional)
  • PM Panda fiber input/output (optional)
  • Similar to lasers, but with non-reflecting ends and broad wavelength emission
  • Incoming optical signal stimulates emission of light at its own wavelength
  • Process continues through cavity to amplify signal

Working principle of SOA amplifier

The basic working principle of a SOA is the same as a semiconductor laser but without feedback. SOAs amplify incident light through simulated emission. When the light traveling through the active region, it causes these electrons to lose energy in the form of photons and get back to the ground state. Those stimulated photons have the same wavelength as the optical signal, thus amplifying the optical signal.

working principle of SOA
SOA Over EFDA in DWDM Networks

As the solution below, 120km Metro Networks by Using an SOA amplifier. You may wonder why not use EDFA in the above networks.

SOA amplifier

Item No. ID# Description
1 29124 S5850-48S2Q4C (48*10GE+2*40GE+4*100GE) Carrier Grade 100G-uplink Switch
2 31238 10G DWDM SFP+ C21-60 80km DOM Transceiver
3 40191 1m LC UPC to LC UPC Duplex 2.0mm PVC 9/125 Single Mode Fiber Patch Cable
4 35887 40 Channels C21-C60 Dual Fiber DWDM Mux Demux, with 1310nm Port for 40G/100G LR4
5 35192 10dB Gain 1310nm Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
6 24422 40G QSFP+ LR4 1310nm 10km, LC Duplex Interface
7 65219 QSFP28 100GBASE-CWDM4 1310nm 2km Transceiver

Theoretically, SOA optical amplifiers are not comparable with EDFA in the terms of performance. The noise figure of SOA optical amplifier is typically higher, the gain bandwidth can be similar, SOAs exhibit much stronger nonlinear distortions in the form of self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing. Yet, the semiconductor optical amplifier is of small size and electrical pumped, which is often less expensive than EDFA. Additionally, SOA can be run with a low power laser.

How to Choose SOA Optical Amplifier?

When selecting SOA amplifier, you have to check the every detailed parameter in the product data sheet. But, seriously, do you understand it? No, please read the following part.

The key parameters used to characterize a SOA amplifier are gain, gain bandwidth, saturation output power and noise.

Gain is the factor by which the input signal is amplified and is measured as the ratio of output power to input power (in dB). A higher gain results in higher output optical signal.

Gain bandwidth defines the range of bandwidth where the amplification functions. A wide gain bandwidth is desirable to amplify a wide range of signal wavelengths.

Saturation output power is the maximum output power attainable after amplification beyond which no amplification is reached. It is important that the SOA has a high power saturation level to remain in the linear working region and to have higher dynamic range.

Noise defines the undesired signal within the signal bandwidth which arises due to physical processing in the amplifier. A parameter called noise figure is used to measure the impact of noise which is typically around 5dB.

Conclusion

SOA amplifier is the economic, high-performance solution for long-hual WDM networks. SOA amplifier, due to its features, can be used in Booster and in-line amplification, optical network, general purpose test and measurement and fiber sensing. However, it also has its limit. In semiconductor optical amplifiers, electron-hole recombination occurs which will affect the performance of the whole line. FS offers EDFA, SOA, Raman optical amplifiers of excellent quality and price. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us.

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OM5 Fiber Cable – Is It Worthwhile for 40G/100G SWDM4 Cabling Solution

OM5 multimode fiber, as the advanced version of the old OM4 fiber, is thought to be the future of multimode cabling. It is the Wideband multimode fiber (WBMMF) that can support wavelengths between 850nm and 953nm. It is also designed to support the short wavelength division multiplexing (SWDM)—one of the new technology for 40G/100G connection. However, will it be the ideal transmission medium for 40GbE/100GbE cabling solution?

How OM5 Fiber Developed

Over the past thirty years, multimode fiber has been evolved from OM1 to OM5 multimode fiber. OM1 and OM2 fiber, released at the end of 20th century, are the legacy 125µm multimode fiber that are working fine in 10Mb/s, 100Mb/s and 1000Mb/s cabling solution. However, with the high speed data rate like 10Gb/s, 40Gb/s, 100Gb/s and beyond coming into our life, multimode cabling (OM1 and OM2 ) with LEDs can not meet the requirement. The laser-optimized OM3 and OM4 has been developed subsequently. OM4 fiber cable, with the internal construction, possess higher modal bandwidth than OM3 fiber, which is commonly used fiber medium for 40G/100G connection.

OM1-OM5 fiber

But there is a problem. In a 40G layout, fiber optic technicians have to use one MTP fiber and 4 OM4 duplex fibers (total 8 fibers), which is obvious not preferable for high-density cabling networks. So here comes the OM5 fiber. By utilizing SWDM technology, it can greatly reduce fiber count into 2 fibers (4×10G) in 40G networks, 2 fibers (4×25G) in 100G links. OM5 is the lime green multimode fiber, displayed as follows.

OM5 Fiber

OM5 Fiber for 40G/100G SWDM4 Cabling Solution

Reduce fiber count for 40G/100G connection—OM5 fiber as the advanced version of OM3/OM4 fiber, is backward compatible with OM3 and OM4 fiber cabling. And with the SWDM technology, this fiber can only use two OM5 fibers and 40/100G SWDM4 transceivers in 40G and 100G SWDM4 cabling.

Longer-transmission distance—OM5 is designed and specified to support at least four WDM channels at a minimum speed of 28Gbps per channel through the 850-953 window. Compared to OM4 fiber cable, it is specified only to work at the 850 nm window. OM5 multimode fiber delivers higher value to network owners for distances up to 440m (for data rates up to 40Gbps), and allows for smooth migration to 400Gbps for distances up to 150m. While OM4 fiber cover the distance of 350m, 100m over 40G/100G respectively.

Easy management & installation—in 40G/100G network, multimode connectivity together with MTP/MPO systems makes for a more user-friendly solution for data centers as well as building and campus backbones, especially in cable installation, troubleshooting, cleaning, and overall maintenance.

FS OM5 Cable Solution

FS offer Lime green OM5 fibers. All our OM5 fiber cables are guaranteed by End Face Geometry Test, Continuity Test, and 3D interferometry Test to be high quality. Available in LC, SC, FC, ST, etc. Connectors, and the cable length of OM5 fiber can be provided from less than 1 meter to more than 100 meters, which will well meet the needs for 400m transmission of 40G SWDM4 QSFP+ module and 100m transmission of 100G SWDM4 QSFP28 module, as well as the links on the same rack or row.

fiber optic cable

Not only the OM1/OM2/OM3/OM4/OM5 multimode fibers are provided at FS.COM, but fiber optic cables like singlemode fibers (OS1/OS2) , Twinax copper cables are also offered. For more information about the cost-effective fiber patch cables, Please feel free to contact us via www.fs.com.

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Cisco Vs Huawei – Which One is the better Choice for Ethernet Switches?

Cisco, as the big brother in the telecom industry, has dominated the market of networking devices (like routers and switches) for a long time. No one can compete with him. Huawei, however, is the rising star in Chinese market. It ranked 83rd in the latest Fortune 500 list on July 23, 2017. Many people assume that in the near future, Huawei will lead the world instead of Cisco. Thus, in this article, we are going to analyze the strength of Cisco and Huawei, along with the differences between Cisco and Huawei switches.

Cisco Vs Huawei

Cisco Vs Huawei — Brand Awareness and Market Share

Both Cisco and Huawei are the relatively young enterprises, which are founded in 1980s. With 30 years’ development, Cisco was at the top of respondent edge/core router and CES manufacturer leadership scores. Cisco systems mainly offers networking devices, networking management, Cisco IoS/NX-OS software, storage area networks, wireless equipment, data center devices, and interface & modules, etc.

Cisco Vs Huawei

The above table shows the basics of the two companies.

According to Fortune 2017, Huawei, with the revenues of $78.5108 billion rank No.83 in Fortune 500 List, which is also the first time in the top hundred. Huawei is famous for mobile and fixed broadband networks. Recently, their optical switches, multimedia technology, tablet computers also wins the heart of customers. Ren zhengfei, founder of the Huawei Technology, once said, Huawei’s secret of success is our focus and dedication to our customers. Huawei will embrace a better future.

IHS Markit Analysis

In the 2016 study, Cisco along with Juniper, Huawei and Nokia (including Alcatel-Lucent), form a top tier clearly separated by a wide margin from the other manufacturers. There was a big gap between these four and their competitors, with the sole exception being price-to-performance ratio.

Cisco Vs Huawei
We ask carrier survey respondents to rate their familiarity of service provider edge/core router and /or CES manufactures.

Looking at the individual manufacturer selection criteria, for technology innovation and product roadmap, Cisco and Nokia were numbers one and two, respectively. And for price-to-performance ratio, Huawei at number one.

Cisco Vs HuaweiAnd for the above table, we can see Cisco drops share in router market; Huawei, Juniper gain & market is rising.

For the full year 2016, Cisco declined 3.7% over 2015, while recording 57.0% market share (compared to 60.6% in 2015). In the hotly contested 10GbE segment, Cisco held 53.0% of the market in 4Q16, finishing essentially flat over the previous quarter.

Huawei continued to perform well in both the Ethernet switch and the router markets. For the full year 2016, Huawei’s Ethernet switch revenues grew 61.8%, leading to a market share of 7.0%, compared to 4.4% in 2015.

Why Would People Go for Huawei?

The reasons that Huawei becomes so strong are not only due to the support from the government, but also because of its powerful local support capability. There are bugs in the high-end devices, and this is inevitable. If two Cisco engineers are assigned to solve the problem, Huawei can assign 20 engineers to fix it. Besides, if one major client like CT has customized requirements, Huawei can ask product engineers to work in the CT office as soon as possible, even Cisco cannot do this. This kind of quick response ability is obviously the advantageous factor for Huawei to exceed Cisco in its own home court.

Cisco Vs Huawei — Switch Comparison

There is some relationship between Cisco Switch and Huawei Switch. So Cisco Switch or Huawei Switch? The following comparison simplifies the relationship of Cisco switch and Huawei switch, which can help you select the most suitable switch devices for your office, or company and organizations.

Cisco Switches Vs Huawei Swicthes

The popular series of Cisco switches are the enterprise switches, Catalyst series and Nexus switches. Cisco Catalyst series includes 2960 series, 3650 series, 3850 series, 4500E series, etc. Cisco Nexus series includes 9000 series, 7000 series, 6000 series, 5000 series, 3000 series, 2000 series, etc. Cisco Catalyst switches are designed for core layers in campus network, while the Nexus is mainly for data centers. Nexus series switches can support Ethernet, Fibre Channel and FCOE all in the same chassis but the catalyst don’t. The catalyst switches support only Ethernet.

Huawei switches also have various series, such as data center switches, campus switches and SOHO & SMB switches. The popular one is the campus switches. In all the campus switches, the S5700 series is the hottest switch. To have a further understanding, the following part will briefly compare Cisco WS-C3850-24T-L and Huawei S5700-28X-LI-AC switches.

Cisco WS-C3850-24T-L Vs. Huawei S5700-28X-LI-AC

WS-C3850-24T-L is Cisco Catalyst 3850 24 Port LAN Base equipped with stackable 24 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports, and 350W AC power supply.

  • WS=Switch C=catalyst 3850=3850 series
  • 24=Ethernet Port Number
  • T=Ethernet Ports
  • L=LAN Base image

S5700-28X-LI-AC is the Huawei S5700 series 10G switches, which are equipped with 24×10/100/1000Base-T Ethernet ports and 4x10GE SFP+ ports.

  • S=switch
  • 57=5700 Series
  • 00=5700 Sub Series like 5710 series
  • 28=the biggest number of data interfaces is 48, including uplinks and downlinks
  • Li=S5700 series
  • AC=Ac power supply

To sum up, each Cisco Catalyst 3850 model, is similar to a S5700 model, or is equivalent to one of Huawei S5700 models, which will not be listed here.

FS.COM White Box switches and Compatible Transceiver Modules

FS 40G/100G white box switches provide high performance, increased availability, low latency and better serviceability for next-generation data centers and enterprise networks in different applications. And they also support spine-leaf network topology that leverage commoditized hardware for the best price/performance, just as shown below.

100g-switchesBesides the 40G/100G white box data center switches, we also provide a full series of compatible transceiver modules including the SFP, SFP+, QSFP+, SFP28, QSFP28, CFP, etc, which are compliant with major brand. Custom service is also available.

Summary

Cisco Vs Huawei, we can’t say which one is better than the other. To be considered the No.1 choice for your network, Cisco switches meet the needs of organizations and offices of all sizes and sorts. As for Huawei, it has several product lines that are similar to Cisco devices, but have their own network hardware lines and IT solutions for different network demands. Besides Cisco and huawei, there are other brand that are also effective and reliable, such as FS enterprise Ethernet switches. For more detailed information, please direct visit fs.com.

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Ready to Watch the Benefits of 25G

Today, with the requirements of the bandwidth, many data centers use 40G Ethernet for connectivity from their servers to their top-of-rack switches. Most Hyperscale public cloud providers and social media giants are even migrating to 100G Ethernet for their servers in the near future. However, for some proactive enterprises, they are finding a cost effective and power efficient solution – 25G is the answer to this challenge. Indeed, a handful of powerful data center and cloud vendors and suppliers, such as Google, Microsoft, Broadcom, Arista and Mellanox, formed a consortium to promote and catalyze development of 25G in 2014. You may have heard plenty of buzz regarding 25G Ethernet. What is 25G? Why 25G? Let’s take a closer look.

25Gig

What Is 25G?

25G is a proposed standard for Ethernet connectivity that could benefit cloud and enterprise data center environments. In June 2014, the IEEE explored the standardization of 25G Ethernet. Subsequently, the standards organization has formed an 802.3by 25G Ethernet study group. They focus on market opportunities and requirements for a single-lane 25G Ethernet speed for server interconnects. 25G Ethernet is an emerging network technology, which is mainly used for the next generation of data center server. 25G Ethernet can provide a 25G media access control (MAC) that matches the single-lane 25G physical layer (PHY) technology. In web-scale data centers, 25G Ethernet could provide an efficient server to increase top-of-rack (TOR) speed. That 25G technology can save cloud providers and enterprise data centers capital and operating expense.

We Are Ready for 25G

Before 25G Ethernet exists, the only available option for higher speed server connectivity is 40G Ethernet. When top-of-rack switches move to high-density 40G Ethernet, the switches could still be connected to 10G servers, because 40G Ethernet consists of four lanes of 10G. And now, there are not only 40G standard under the way, but also the 25G Ethernet standards can be used to build a single-lane 25G Ethernet connection, a 2 x 25G configuration for 50G Ethernet or a 4 x 25G configuration for 100G Ethernet. With the availability of 4 x 25G per lane technology for 100G,  a single 25G lane can reduce cost in comparison to 40G based on four 10G lanes. So 25G Ethernet technology is ready now.

25G_table

Ready to Watch the Benefits of 25G
Ideal for the Cloud

Cloud computing is the most biggest attractions for 25G. Cloud providers are looking forward to reducing cost and improving density, but 10G is no longer the need of server speeds. Under this condition, 10G requires more switches in the rack, so it needs higher cost. With the emergence of 25G technology, the IEEE has defined 100G Ethernet based on four lanes each at 25G. With the success of 100G Ethernet in data center networks for inter-switch links, 25G has proven to be a reliable and cost effective technology. And Dell’Oro Group predicts that 25G will take over Ethernet server port sales by 2018.

Availability to the Server, Switch and Storage Infrastructure

Since the 25G Ethernet Consortium was formed in 2014, multiple suppliers have released silicon and system products that support the standard. Major server vendors offer 25G, 50G and 100G Ethernet adapters, while a broad range of switch vendors support 25G, 50G and 100G Ethernet speeds. In addition, the latest merchant silicon switches deliver up to 32 ports of 100G with single lane SerDes architectures with 128 lanes of 25G, making 25G a logical speed choice for migration of next generation server and storage. Therefore, there are 25G Ethernet solutions from all of the major switch and server vendors. As more and more of the server, switch and storage infrastructure converts to 25G, you will be able to recognize the performance and efficiency of the faster network speeds.

More Performance Improvement of 25G

25G solutions provide 2.5x more bandwidth, but they are not significantly more expensive than 10G Ethernet solutions. Furthermore, they are fully backwards compatible when connected to 10G equipment. When you upgrade data center network to 25G, you can refresh your network with 25G capabilities instead of upgrading the whole system. Compared with 40G solutions, the underlying technology for 40G Ethernet is simply four lanes at 10G speed. It does not offer the advantages of cost, power consumption and server rack density, which enable widespread speed transition. All in all, 25G technology provides lower costs and power requirements, which can enable network bandwidth to be cost-effectively and support the next-generation server and storage solutions in cloud and web-scale data center environments.

Conclusion

25G Ethernet leverages the single-lane 25G physical layer technology to support 100G Ethernet, which offers higher speed, lower power consumption and lower cost. In the near future, 25G Ethernet deployments will become the highest server port deployment. You can be ready for 25G and begin seeing the benefits of better compute and storage efficiency in your data center today.

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Classification and Specification of Ethernet Cables

An Ethernet cable is one of the most popular forms of network cables used on wired networks for the purpose of transmitting network information. The commonly seen Ethernet cables are twisted pair cables, which can be divided into two categories: shielded twisted pairs (STP) and unshielded twisted pairs (UTP). In general, the most commonly used are unshielded twisted pairs which consist of four thin copper wires with each pair of copper wires twisted together, each copper wire wrapped in colored plastic insulating layer, and wrapped with a layer of plastic coat as a whole. Unshielded twisted pairs adopt RJ-45 interfaces, so they are also called RJ-45 cables. Normally, UTPs can be classified into 5 types: Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, and Cat7. This post will explain the classification of UTPs and differences between them in detail.

Cat5

Cat5 provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for most varieties of Ethernet over twisted pair. Cat5 is mainly applied to 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet), and also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video. Cat5 has a long evolution history, and it’s developed based on Cat1, Cat2, Cat3, and Cat4. Cat1 is used for telephone communication, but not suitable for data transmission. Cat2 can be used for data transmission, the maximum speed of which is 4Mbps. Cat3 is used for 10BASE-T Ethernet, and the maximum speed of data transmission is 10Mbps. Cat4 is used for token ring and 10BASE-T/100BASE-T network with the maximum speed of data transmission being 16Mbps.

cat5

Cat5e

Cat5e (Cat5 enhanced) is an enhancement over Cat5, and has superseded Cat5 since 2001. It’s designed to greatly reduce crosstalk. Compared to Cat5, Cat5e is better at keeping signals on different circuits or channels from interfering with each other, and it has higher SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio), smaller delay error, and greater performance. It can handle 1000 Mbps speeds (gigabit Ethernet) at 100 MHz and it’s used for 1000BASE-T.

cat5e

Cat6

Cat6 is a major improvement over Cat5e. It has stronger resistance to signal interference. It’s suitable for up to 10 gigabit Ethernet at 250 MHz. Compared with Cat5 and Cat5e, Cat6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. To better tackle the problem of crosstalk, Cat6 installs an internal separator that isolates pairs from one another, and it has greatly improved the performance in echo loss. When used for 10/100/1000BASE-T, the maximum allowed length of a Cat6 is up to 100 meters (328 ft). For 10GBASE-T, an unshielded Cat6 should not exceed 55 meters.

Cat6 twisted pair

Cat6a

Cat6a (or Augmented Cat6) is capable of supporting data transmission rates of up to 10Gbps at a maximum bandwidth of 500MHz, twice that of Cat6. Compared to Cat6, Cat6a has improved strikingly, especially in the aspect of alien crosstalk. Since Cat6a has additional and tighter twists with additional insulation to reduce crosstalk, it has exhibited high alien noise in high frequencies. Besides, the size and weight of Cat6a have been reduced and slimmed down by 10% so as to make room for cable bend radius in the cable tray, patch panel and behind a wall outlet.

CAT 6a

Cat7

Cat7 UTP, informal name for the ISO/IEC 11801 Class F cable standard, is a kind of twist pair, and it is not currently recognized by TIA/EIA. It’s designed to support data transmission rates of up to 10Gbps at a maximum bandwidth of 600MHz over 100 m of copper cabling, 6 times larger than Cat5e and 2.4 times larger than Cat6.

cat-7

Conclusion

Hopefully, this brief guide will help you get to know your Ethernet cables. If you would like to know more or would like assistance in choosing the right cabling infrastructure, welcome to visit our website www.fs.com for more detailed information. FS will provide more choices and better services for our clients.

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Things to Consider When Choosing a WAP

Now since the intelligent mobile phone is more and more convenient, people have stronger and stronger demands for the Internet. As a result, the programs of wireless coverage have been increasing. At the same time, many people are confused about choosing a wireless access point (WAP). The post summarizes some tips for your reference when choosing a WAP.

Range

The distance covered is an important parameter in buying an AP. WAPs with range enhancements are advantageous as they reduce the number and general costs of access points. In general, adequate range lowers overall expenses to the client since fewer access points are required. Majority of enterprise wireless access points are able to give a coverage for an area between five thousand to ten thousand square feet. The range of a typical residential Wi-Fi network is dependent upon antenna sensitivity and one’s need.

Speed

This refers to the rate of information traveling, usually measured in bps (bits per second), kilobits, megabits or gigabits. In general, the speed of a wireless AP can reach 300Mbps or higher if the precise 802.11n protocol being supported, which is six times faster than 802.11n. While WAP supporting 802.11ac protocol can reach 1200Mbps.

Price

The price would depend on several factors. But one should keep in mind that not the higher the price is, the better an AP will be. High price would not only increase the cost, but also result in the waste of function and performance of product; on the contrary, low price would induce people to buy inferior-quality or fake products. So you should have a clear understanding of the actual performance of WAP in order not to be tempted by exaggerated advertising effect.

price

Features

Although there is a broad variety of features, they might not be what you need. You should select what you need most, and then do a bit of research into the device that you are going to buy. Be sure to take bps and range into consideration.

WAP Capacity

The capacity of a WAP is the number of users that it can support without a degradation of performance. Capacity is also an important factor when choosing a wireless AP. Although all manufactures will emphasize throughput in advertisements, few of them will reveal the specific number of users that their gadgets are capable of supporting.

Power over Ethernet (PoE)

Power over Ethernet has some evident advantages. For example, PoE support on wireless access points greatly simplifies the installation, reduces the cost, and saves data and power cables separately for each network device. It has high flexibility since the network device can be installed in any location without having to approach an existing power outlet. Last but not least, it has high reliability; a PoE device with SNMP capabilities can carry out remote detection and control, and can effectively handle or repair power consumption or malfunction of the device. Based on this, PoE is of great importance in choosing a WAP.

poe_raw

Gain Antenna

The antenna of wireless AP is basically built-in, unlike routers whose antenna is external. Therefore, the wireless AP antenna is very important, and it will directly affect the signal strength of wireless AP and the range of transmission. When you are purchasing a wireless AP, you’d better choose one with gain antenna.

Conclusion

Now there are a number of new devices which are more powerful and can support a wider area in the market for you to opt for, but be sure to find the right wireless access points based just on your needs and at the same time take a few factors into consideration such as range, speed, price, features, WAP Capacity, PoE, gain antenna, etc. And what’s more, it would be wise to checkout some of the feedback and reviews from a few products before you make your final decision.

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Guidance on Buying a Data Center Switch

Given the unprecedented development of network technology, switches have been widely used in some large-scale LANs and switch products are becoming increasingly rich. Thousands of enterprises like FS, Cisco, HP and Huawei provide varying level of switch products, such as Ethernet switch and fiber optic switch, to satisfy different demands. Customers may be dazzled and have no idea what to do with so many products. Therefore choosing the right switch for your data center can be a difficult task. This article introduces some basic information of data center switch and offers some references and suggestions on how to pick a good switch for you.

What Are Data Center Switches?

Network switches fall into four basic categories: core switches, distribution switches, access switches and data center switches, of which the first three fit into the classic three-tier enterprise network model while the last one is newer and currently used mainly by large enterprises and cloud providers that rely heavily on virtualization.

As for the type of optical switches, the most important feature of a fiber optic switch is that it adopts fiber optic cables as its transmission medium with the advantages of fast speed and strong anti-interference capability. Different types of switches have unique characteristics that, when used properly, better optimize the network as a whole. Over time, with developments in storage area networks (SANs) and the continued growth of virtualization , changes in data-center server architecture ushered in a new breed of high-performance switches—data center switches. The features of data center switch can be classified as follow:

  • Data center switches provide the physical port capacity and port throughput required to handle both north-south and east-west traffic flows.
  • Data center switches allow for connectivity using both standard LAN Ethernet protocol and SAN protocols, such as Fiber Channel over Ethernet and legacy Fiber Channel.
  • Data center switches have more extensive high availability and fault tolerance systems built into the hardware and software for better uptime for mission-critical applications.
  • Data center switches provide significantly higher deployment flexibility with both top-of-rack and end-of-row configuration compatibility.
  • Finally, all components of a distributed data center switch can be managed from a single management interface for ease of use.
How to Pick the Right Switch for You?

Before deciding what type of switch you should buy, you need to weigh a variety of factors, from routing requirements and port speeds to manufacturer support. Careful planning before making a switch purchase will save you money by ensuring you don’t wind up buying equipment that has functionality your organization doesn’t need. At the same time, it can exempt you from future worries by making sure you aren’t left with switches that can’t expand their capabilities as your requirements change and grow. Here are some points you can consider to help guide your switch purchase.

a) 100G Options
  • Range of switch form factors with 100G ports
  • Maximum number of 100G ports per rack unit
b) Sub-Microsecond Options
  • Range of switch form factors with sub-microsecond throughput
  • Maximum number of 100G ports per rack unit
c) Cloud, SDN and Virtualization Readiness
  • Support for OpenFlow (the higher the version, the better)
  • Certification of compliance with the highest version for which a testing suite is defined (typically several versions behind the current)
  • Vendor OF controller, and/or third-party and/or open source OF controllers certified with its hardware
  • OpenStack plugin
  • Physical switch support for VXLAN and/or NVGRE
d) Platform Unity, Manageability, Maintainability
  • Single operating system for all data center switches
  • Single management tool addressing whole DC switching portfolio and all features
  • Support for in-service software upgrades, so switches don’t have to be shut down  for upgrades

Once you have gone through these key points, you should be ready to do some switch shopping. Next I will introduce some top switches in the market for your reference.

Top Switches Product Overview
Type
Description
FS S5850-48S6Q data center switch

1. 48 SFP+ ports and 6 QSFP+ ports which provide 720Gbps non-blocking bandwidth and 1072Mpps L2/L3 throughput

2. Designed for traffic visibility and trouble shooting

3. Support VxLAN/NvGRE, including Routing

4. Support ECN and PFC, etc

5. Support up to 64 ways ECMP

6. Support Openflow image and NPB (TAP) image

7. Compatible with Cisco, Juniper, Arista switches, as well as other brands of switches

FS S5850-48S2Q4C data center switch
1. 48 SFP+ ports, 2 QSFP+ ports and 4 QSFP28 ports which provide 960Gbps non-blocking bandwidth and 1200Mpps L2/L3 throughput

2. Designed for traffic visibility and trouble shooting

3. Support VxLAN/NvGRE, including Routing

4. Support ECN and PFC, etc

5. Support up to 64 ways ECMP

6. Support Openflow image and NPB (TAP) image

7. Compatible with Cisco, Juniper, Arista switches, as well as other brands of switches

FS S5850-32S2Q data center switch

1. 32 SFP+ ports and 2 QSFP+ ports which provide 400Gbps non-blocking bandwidth and 596Mpps L2/L3 throughput

2. Designed for traffic visibility and trouble shooting

3. Support VxLAN/NvGRE, including Routing

4. Support ECN and PFC, etc

5. Support up to 64 ways ECMP

6. Support Openflow image and NPB (TAP) image

7. Compatible with Cisco, Juniper, Arista switches, as well as other brands of switches

Conclusion

A good data center switch can provide enterprise organizations with significant advantages in performance, availability and ease of management. I hope this article can help you find a suitable data center switch for your organization.

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Migrating to 40/100G Networks With MTP Harness Conversion Cable

The market turning to 40G/100G transmission is imperative in today’s gigabit Ethernet applications. MTP cabling assemblies, with their overwhelming advantages, provide a fast, simple and economical upgrade path from 10 Gigabit to 40 or 100 Gigabit applications. As we all know, 40G/100G gigabit Ethernet backbone networks often use 8-fibers per channel, which means most existing equipment doesn’t utilize fibers fully in 12-fiber cabling systems. Today this post will introduce a type of MTP fiber cable—MTP conversion cable which can overcome the problem mentioned above.

Basis of 40G/100G MTP Conversion Cable

12-fiber MTP connectors are popular in the past years. And most backbone networks deploy the 12-fiber cabling systems. But with the quick development of optical transceivers, for 40G/100G gigabit applications, many transceivers that are guiding the industry from 10G to 40G and100G utilize only eight fibers. Then the problem arises. However, MTP conversion cable allows users to convert their existing MTP backbone cables to an MTP type which matches their active equipment. It’s a low-loss alternative to conversion modules because they eliminate one mated MTP pair across the link. There are mainly three types of MTP conversion cable on the market: 1×2, 1×3 and 2×3 MTP conversion cable.

1×2 Harness MTP Conversion Cable

This MTP conversion cable has a 24-fiber MTP connector on one end and two 12-fiber MTP connectors on the other end. It is used to allow existing 10G MTP 12-fiber trunk cables to carry 40G/100G channels. The 40G/100G signal is split equally across two 12-fiber trunks which were previously installed within a traditional MTP modular network.

1x2 MTP conversion cable

1×3 MTP Harness Conversion Cable

Like the 1×2 MTP conversion cable, this conversion cable also has a 24-fiber MTP connector on one end. But the other end comprises three 8-fiber MTP connectors, which is different from the former type. This MTP conversion cable allows users to convert their 24-fiber backbone trunks into Base-8 connections so that 40G rates can be achieved easily. A Single Base-24 connection is split out to three Base-8 connections, giving users three 40G ports.

1x3 MTP conversion cable

2×3 Harness MTP Conversion Cable

For users who have already installed a 10G MTP based network using 12-fiber and 24-fiber trunk cables and modules, this 2×3 MTP conversion cable can provide the conversion from 12-fiber to 8-fiber connectivity for full-fiber utilization, especially allowing for maximum use of existing fibers when converting to 40G channels. Because the conversion cable has two 12-fiber MTP connectors on one end and three 8-fiber MTP connectors on another end. They are available in either direct or crossed polarity for fast deployment using polarity management method A, and polarity can be reversed on site, offering enhanced flexibility & operability.

2x3 MTP conversion cable

Cabling Options with 40G/100G MTP Conversion Cable

The 40G/100G MTP conversion cables eliminate the wasted fibers in current 40 gigabit transmissions and upcoming 100 gigabit transmission. Compared to purchase and install separate conversion cassettes, using MTP conversion cables is a more cost-effective, lower-loss option. Here are three application examples.

Cabling Options for 40G/100G Connectivity With 1×3 MTP Conversion Cable

As shown in the picture below, two 40G/100G switches are connected by 1X3 MTP conversion cables (one 24-fiber MTP connector on one end and three 8-fiber MTP connectors on the other end), 24-fiber MTP trunk cable and MTP adapter panels. With this MTP conversion cable, less fiber cables are required. That brings more conveniences for cable management in data centers.

1x3 MTP conversion cable soulution

The cabling solution for 40G/100G conversion with 1×2 MTP conversion cable is similar to the solution of 1×3 MTP conversion cable.

Cabling Options for 40G Connectivity With 2×3 MTP Conversion Cable

In the following applications, connecting the 40G transceivers with a 8-fiber MTP conversion cable rather than a traditional 12-fiber MTP jumper, can enscure the 100% backbone fiber utilization and saving cost.

2x3 MTP conversion cable soulution

Summary

The 40G/100G MTP conversion cables provide a cost-effective cabling solution for upgrading to 40G and 100G networks. All the benefits and features of these MTP conversion harness cables are explained in the article. And the three types of 40G/100G MTP conversion cable which are available in OS2, OM3 and OM4 options are provided in FS.COM. If you want to know more details, please contact us via sales@fs.com.

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Comparison of OM1, OM2, OM3 & OM4

Multimode and single-mode optical fiber cables are two different cable types in optical networking. Using a larger core size, multimode fiber cable allows multiple light signals to be transmitted in a single fiber over short distances. Multimode fiber systems offer flexible, reliable and cost effective cabling solutions for local area networks (LANs), storage area networks (SANs), central offices and data centers. Unlike the complex classifications of single-mode fiber, multimode fiber is usually divided into four types of OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4. “OM” is abbreviated for optical multimode, and it is specified by the ISO/IEC 11801 international standard. Of course, these four types of multimode fiber have different specifications (as shown in the following table). The article will compare these four kinds of fibers from the side of core size, bandwidth, data rate, distance, color and optical source in details.

specification of OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4

Core Size

Multimode fiber is provided with the core diameter from 50 µm to 100 µm. Apart from OM1 with a core size of 62.5 µm, other three types are all using the 50 µm. The thick core size makes them able to carry different light waves along numerous paths without modal dispersion limitation. Nevertheless, in the long cable distance, multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission. And this is why all the types of multimode fiber can only be used for short distance.

Bandwidth

Bandwidth is the bit-rate of available or consumed information capacity expressed typically in metric multiples of bits per second. The higher bandwidth is, the faster transmission speed can be. According to overfilled launch (OFL) and effective modal bandwidth (EMB) measurements, OM1 and OM2 can only support OFL, but OM3 and OM4 are able to support both measurements. At the wavelengths of 850/1300 nm under OFL, the respective bandwidth of OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4 is 200/500 MHz*km, 500/500 MHz*km, 1500/500 MHz*km and 3500/500 MHz*km. And at the wavelength of 850 nm under EMB, the bandwidth of OM3 is 2000 MHz*km and OM4 even reaches 4700 MHz*km.

Data Rate

Data rate is a technical term that describes how quickly information can be exchanged between electronic devices. With a higher data rate, the transmission can be more effective. OM1 and OM2 support the Ethernet standards from 100BASE to 10GBASE with a minimum data rate of 100 Mbps and a maximum data rate of 10 Gbps. Compare with OM1 and OM2, OM3 and OM4 are enhanced to support much higher data rates of 40 Gbps and 100Gbps in 40G and 100G Ethernet.

Distance

Multimode fiber is typically used for short distance transmission. But the maximum reaches are varied in different multimode fiber types. Also, on account of different data rates, the transmitting distances are different. However, the common feature is that OM1 always supports the shortest distance yet OM4 supports the longest. For instance, based on the same data rate of 10 Gbps, the maximum reach of OM1 is 33 m, OM2 is 82 m, OM3 is 300 m and OM4 is 550 m. Thus, if a medium-sized transmission is required, OM3 and OM4 are the best choices.

Color & Optical Source

The outer jacket can also be a method to distinguish OM1, OM2 from OM3, OM4. The common jacket color of OM1 and OM2 is orange, and OM3, OM4 are in aqua. In addition, OM1 and OM2 are using a light-emitting diodes (LEDs) optical source but OM3 and OM4 adopt the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSELs) optical source.

color and optical source of OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4

Application

OM1 and OM2 are widely employed for short-haul networks, local area networks (LANs) and private networks. OM3 is applied to a larger private networks. Different from the previous multimode types, OM4 is more advanced to be used for high-speed networks in data centers, financial centers and corporate campuses.

Conclusion

It is very important to choose the right fiber type for your application. Future-proofing network design is crucial for network planning, but there is often a cost for that speed. With a higher performance, OM3 and OM4 are definitely more expensive than OM1 and OM2. So plan well and spend wisely.

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